4. Disclosure and Discovery

26. General Provisions Governing Discovery; Duty of Disclosure

(a) Required Disclosures; Methods to Discover Additional Matter. Unless otherwise ordered by the court or stipulated by the parties, provisions of this Rule shall not apply to domestic relations, juvenile, mental health, probate, water law, forcible entry and detainer, C.R.C.P. 120, or other expedited proceedings.

   

(1) Disclosures. Except to the extent otherwise directed by the court, a party shall, without awaiting a discovery request, provide to other parties:

(A) The name and, if known, the address and telephone number of each individual likely to have discoverable information relevant to disputed facts alleged with particularity in the pleadings, identifying who the person is and the subjects of the information;

(B) A listing, together with a copy of, or a description by category and location of, all documents, data compilations, and tangible things in the possession, custody, or control of the party that are relevant to disputed facts alleged with particularity in the pleadings, making available for inspection and copying the documents or other evidentiary material, not privileged or protected from disclosure, as though a request for production of those documents had been served pursuant to C.R.C.P. 34;

(C) A description of the categories of damages sought and a computation of any category of economic damages claimed by the disclosing party, making available for inspection and copying pursuant to C.R.C.P. 34 the documents or other evidentiary material, not privileged or protected from disclosure, as though a request for production of those documents had been served pursuant to C.R.C.P. 34; and

(D) Any insurance agreement under which any person carrying on an insurance business may be liable to satisfy part or all of a judgment which may be entered in the action or to indemnify or reimburse for payments made to satisfy the judgment, making such agreement available for inspection and copying pursuant to C.R.C.P. 34.

The timing of disclosures shall be within 35 days after the case is at issue as defined in C.R.C.P. 16(b). A party shall make the required disclosures based on the information then known and reasonably available to the party and is not excused from making such disclosures because the party has not completed investigation of the case or because the party challenges the sufficiency of another party's disclosures or because another party has not made the required disclosures.

(2) Disclosure of Expert Testimony.

(A) In addition to the disclosures required by subsection (a)(1) of this Rule, a party shall disclose to other parties the identity of any person who may present evidence at trial, pursuant to Rules 702, 703, or 705 of the Colorado Rules of Evidence together with an identification of the person's fields of expertise.

(B) Except as otherwise stipulated or directed by the court, this disclosure shall:

(I) With respect to a witness who is retained or specially employed to provide expert testimony, or whose duties as an employee of the party regularly involve giving expert testimony, be accompanied by a written report or summary. The report or summary shall contain a complete statement of all opinions to be expressed and the basis and reasons therefor; the data or other information considered by the witness in forming the opinions; any exhibits to be used as a summary of or support for the opinions; the qualifications of the witness, including a list of all publications authored by the witness within the preceding ten years; the compensation for the study and testimony; and a listing of any other cases in which the witness has testified as an expert at trial or by deposition within the preceding four years. In addition, if a report is issued by the expert it shall be provided.

(II) With respect to a witness who may be called to provide expert testimony but is not within the description contained in subsection (a)(2)(B)(I) above, the report or summary shall contain the qualifications of the witness and a complete statement describing the substance of all opinions to be expressed and the basis and reasons therefor.

(C) Unless otherwise provided in the Case Management Order, the timing of the disclosures shall be as follows:

(I) The disclosure by a claiming party under a complaint, counterclaim, cross–claim or third–party claim shall be made at least 126 days (18 weeks) before the trial date.

(II) The disclosure by a defending party shall be made within 28 days after service of the claiming party's disclosure, provided, however, that if the claiming party serves its disclosure earlier than required under subparagraph 26(a)(2)(C)(I), the defending party is not required to serve its disclosures until 98 days (14 weeks) before the trial date.

(III) If the evidence is intended to contradict or rebut evidence on the same subject matter identified by another party under subparagraph (a)(2)(C)(II) of this Rule, such disclosure shall be made no later than 77 days (11 weeks) before the trial date.

(3) [None].

(4) Form of Disclosures; Filing. All disclosures pursuant to subparagraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this Rule shall be made in writing, in a form pursuant to C.R.C.P. 10, signed pursuant to C.R.C.P. 26(g)(1), and served upon all other parties. Disclosures shall not be filed with the court unless requested by the court or necessary for consideration of a particular issue.

(5) Methods to Discover Additional Matters. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods: depositions upon oral examination or written questions; written interrogatories; production of documents or things or permission to enter upon land or other property, pursuant to C.R.C.P. 34; physical and mental examinations; and requests for admission. Discovery at a place within a country having a treaty with the United States applicable to the discovery must be conducted by methods authorized by the treaty except that, if the court determines that those methods are inadequate or inequitable, it may authorize other discovery methods not prohibited by the treaty.

(b) Discovery Scope and Limits. Unless otherwise limited by order of the court in accordance with these rules, the scope of discovery is as follows:

(1) In General. Subject to the limitations and considerations contained in subsection (b)(2) of this Rule, parties may obtain discovery regarding any matter, not privileged, that is relevant to the claim or defense of any party, including the existence, description, nature, custody, condition and location of any books, documents, or other tangible things and the identity and location of persons having knowledge of any discoverable matter. For good cause, the court may order discovery of any matter relevant to the subject matter involved in the action. Relevant information need not be admissible at the trial if the discovery appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence.

(2) Limitations. Except upon order for good cause shown, discovery shall be limited as follows:

(A) A party may take one deposition of each adverse party and of two other persons, exclusive of persons expected to give expert testimony disclosed pursuant to subsection 26(a)(2). The scope and manner of proceeding by way of deposition and the use thereof shall otherwise be governed by C.R.C.P. Rules 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 and 45.

(B) A party may serve on each adverse party 30 written interrogatories, each of which shall consist of a single question. The scope and manner of proceeding by means of written interrogatories and the use thereof shall otherwise be governed by C.R.C.P. Rules 26 and 33.

(C) A party may obtain a physical or mental examination (including blood group) of a party or of a person in the custody or under the legal control of a party pursuant to C.R.C.P. 35.

(D) A party may serve each adverse party requests for production of documents or tangible things or for entry, inspection or testing of land or property pursuant to C.R.C.P. 34, except such requests for production shall be limited to 20 in number, each of which shall consist of a single request.

(E) A party may serve on each adverse party 20 requests for admission, each of which shall consist of a single request. A party may also serve requests for admission of the genuineness of up to 50 separate documents that the party intends to offer into evidence at trial. The scope and manner of proceeding by means of requests for admission and the use thereof shall otherwise be governed by C.R.C.P. 36.

(F) In determining good cause to modify the limitations of this subsection (b)(2), the court shall consider the following:

(i) Whether the discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or duplicative, or is obtainable from some other source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive;

(ii) Whether the party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity by disclosure or discovery in the action to obtain the information sought;

(iii) Whether the burden or expense of the proposed discovery outweighs its likely benefit, taking into account the needs of the case, the amount in controversy, the parties' resources, the importance of the issues in the litigation, and the importance of the proposed discovery in resolving the issues; and

(iv) Whether because of the number of parties and their alignment with respect to the underlying claims and defenses, the proposed discovery is reasonable.

(3) Trial Preparation: Materials. Subject to the provisions of subsection (b)(4) of this Rule, a party may obtain discovery of documents and tangible things otherwise discoverable under subsection (b)(1) of this Rule and prepared in anticipation of litigation or for trial by or for another party or by or for that other party's representative (including the party's attorney, consultant, surety, indemnitor, insurer, or agent) only upon a showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials in the preparation of the case and is unable without undue hardship to obtain the substantial equivalent of the materials by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the required showing has been made, the court shall protect against disclosure of the mental impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party concerning the litigation.

A party may obtain without the required showing a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that party. Upon request, a person not a party may obtain without the required showing a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that person. If the request is refused, the person may move for a court order. The provisions of C.R.C.P. 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion. For purposes of this paragraph, a statement previously made is:

(A) A written statement signed or otherwise adopted or approved by the person making it, or

(B) a stenographic, mechanical, electrical, or other recording, or a transcription thereof, which is a substantially verbatim recital of an oral statement by the person making it and contemporaneously recorded.

(4) Trial Preparation: Experts.

(A) A party may depose any person who has been identified as an expert whose opinions may be presented at trial. Except to the extent otherwise stipulated by the parties or ordered by the court, no discovery, including depositions, concerning either the identity or the opinion of experts shall be conducted until after the disclosures required by subsection (a)(2) of this Rule.

(B) A party may, through interrogatories or by deposition, discover facts known or opinions held by an expert who has been retained or specially employed by another party in anticipation of litigation or preparation for trial and who is not expected to be called as a witness at trial only as provided by C.R.C.P. 35(b) or upon a showing of exceptional circumstances under which it is impracticable for the party seeking discovery to obtain facts or opinions on the same subject by other means.

(C) Unless manifest injustice would result, (i) the court shall require that the party seeking discovery pay the expert a reasonable fee for time spent in responding to discovery under this subsection (b)(4); and (ii) with respect to discovery obtained pursuant to subsection (b)(4)(B) of this Rule, the court shall require the party seeking discovery to pay the other party a fair portion of the fees and expenses reasonably incurred by the latter party in obtaining facts and opinions from the expert.

(5) Claims of Privilege or Protection of Trial Preparation Materials. When a party withholds information required to be disclosed or provided in discovery by claiming that it is privileged or subject to protection as trial preparation material, the party shall make the claim expressly and shall describe the nature of the documents, communications, or things not produced or disclosed in a manner that, without revealing information itself privileged or protected, will enable other parties to assess the applicability of the privilege or protection.

(c) Protective Orders. Upon motion by a party or by the person from whom disclosure is due or discovery is sought, accompanied by a certificate that the movant has in good faith conferred or attempted to confer with other affected parties in an effort to resolve the dispute without court action, and for good cause shown, the court may make any order which justice requires to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following:

(1) that the disclosure or discovery not be had;

(2) that the disclosure or discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place;

(3) that the discovery may be had only by a method of discovery other than that selected by the party seeking discovery;

(4) that certain matters not be inquired into, or that the scope of the disclosure or discovery be limited to certain matters;

(5) that discovery be conducted with no one present except persons designated by the court;

(6) that a deposition, after being sealed, be opened only by order of the court;

(7) that a trade secret or other confidential research, development, or commercial information not be revealed or be revealed only in a designated way; and

(8) that the parties simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed by the court.

If the motion for a protective order is denied in whole or in part, the court may, on such terms and conditions as are just, order that any party or other person provide or permit discovery. The provisions of C.R.C.P. 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.

(d) Timing and Sequence of Discovery. Except when authorized by these Rules, by order, or by agreement of the parties, a party may not seek discovery from any source before submission of the proposed Case Management Order pursuant to C.R.C.P. 16. Any discovery conducted prior to issuance of the Case Management Order shall not exceed the limitations established by C.R.C.P. 26(b)(2). Unless the court upon motion, for the convenience of parties and witnesses and in the interests of justice, orders otherwise, methods of discovery may be used in any sequence, and the fact that a party is conducting discovery, whether by deposition or otherwise, shall not operate to delay any other party's discovery.

(e) Supplementation of Disclosures and Responses. A party is under a duty to supplement its disclosures under section (a) of this Rule when the party learns that in some material respect the information disclosed is incomplete or incorrect and if the additional or corrective information has not otherwise been made known to the other parties during the disclosure or discovery process. A party is under a duty to amend a prior response to an interrogatory, request for production or request for admission when the party learns that the prior response is in some material respect incomplete or incorrect and if the additional or corrective information has not otherwise been made known to the other parties during the discovery process. With respect to experts, the duty to supplement or correct extends both to information contained in the expert's report or summary disclosed pursuant to section (b) of this Rule and to information provided through any deposition of or interrogatory responses by the expert. Supplementation shall be performed in a timely manner.

(f) [None].

(g) Signing of Disclosures, Discovery Requests, Responses, and Objections.

(1) Every disclosure made pursuant to subsections (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this Rule shall be signed by at least one attorney of record in the attorney's individual name. An unrepresented party shall sign the disclosure and state the party's address. The signature of the attorney or party constitutes a certification that to the best of the signer's knowledge, information, and belief, formed after a reasonable inquiry, the disclosure is complete and correct as of the time it is made.

(2) Every discovery request, or response, or objection made by a party represented by an attorney shall be signed by at least one attorney of record in the attorney's individual name. An unrepresented party shall sign the request, response, or objection and state the party's address. The signature of the attorney or party constitutes a certification that to the best of the signer's knowledge, information and belief, formed after a reasonable inquiry, the request, response or objection is:

(A) Consistent with these rules and warranted by existing law or a good faith argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of existing law;

(B) Not interposed for any improper purpose, such as to harass or to cause unnecessary delay or needless increase in the cost of litigation; and

(C) Not unreasonable or unduly burdensome or expensive, given the needs of the case, the discovery already had in the case, the amount in controversy, and the importance of the issues at stake in the litigation.

If a request, response or objection is not signed, it shall be stricken unless it is signed promptly after the omission is called to the attention of the party making the request, response or objection, and a party shall not be obligated to take any action with respect to it until it is signed.

(3) If without substantial justification a certification is made in violation of this rule, the court, upon motion or upon its own initiative, may impose upon the person who made the certification, the party on whose behalf the disclosure, request, response or objection is made, or both, an appropriate sanction, which may include an order to pay the amount of the reasonable expenses incurred because of the violation, including reasonable attorney fees.

26.1. – 26.3 [Repealed]
  [Contents]

27. Depositions Before Action or Pending Appeal

(a) Before Action.

(1) Petition; Order; Notice. A person who desires to perpetuate his own testimony or that of other persons may file in a district court a petition verified by his oath (or, if there be more than one petitioner, then by the oath of at least one of them) stating either: (1) That the petitioner expects to be a party to an action in a court in this state and, in such case, the name of the persons who he expects will be adverse parties; or (2) that the proof of some facts is necessary to perfect the title to property in which petitioner is interested or others similarly situated may be interested or to establish any other matter which it may hereafter become material to establish, including marriage, divorce, birth, death, descent or heirship, though no action may at any time be anticipated, or, if anticipated, the expected adverse parties to such action are unknown to petitioner. The petition shall also state the names of the witnesses to be examined and their places of residence and a brief outline of the facts expected to be proved, and if any person named in the petition as an expected adverse party is known to the petitioner to be an infant or incompetent person the petition shall state such fact. If the expected adverse parties are unknown, it shall be so stated. The court shall make an order allowing the examination and directing notice to be given, which notice, if the expected adverse parties are named in the petition, shall be personally served on them in the manner provided in Rule 4(e) and, if the expected adverse parties are stated to be unknown, and if real property is to be affected by such testimony a copy of such notice shall be served on the county clerk and recorder, or his deputy, of the county where the property to be affected by such testimony or some part of such property is situated but in any event said notice shall be published for not less than two weeks in some newspaper to be designated by the court making the order in such manner as may be designated by such court. If service of said notice cannot with due diligence be made, in the manner provided in Rule 4(e), upon any expected adverse party named in the petition, the court may make such order as is just for service upon him by publication or otherwise and shall appoint, for persons named in the petition as expected adverse parties who are not served in the manner provided in Rule 4(e), an attorney who shall represent them, and, in case they are not otherwise represented, shall cross–examine the witness. Such notice shall state the title of the proceeding, including the court and county in which it is pending, the time and place of the examination and either a brief outline of the facts expected to be proved or a description of the property to be affected by such testimony. Any notice heretofore given which contains the above required matters shall be deemed sufficient. Any personal service required by the provisions hereof shall be made at least 14 days before the testimony is taken. If any person named in the petition as an expected adverse party is stated in any paper filed in such proceeding to be an infant or incompetent person, the provisions of Rule 17(c) apply, but no guardian ad litem need be appointed for any expected adverse party whose name is unknown.

(2) Testimony Taken. Upon proof of the service of the notice the court shall take the testimony of the witnesses named in the petition upon the facts therein set forth; and the taking of same may be continued from time to time, in the discretion of the court, without giving any further notice. The testimony shall be taken on question and answer unless the court otherwise direct, and any party to the proceeding may question witnesses either orally or upon written interrogatories. The testimony, when taken, shall be signed and sworn to in writing by each respective witness and certified by the court. If any witness is absent from the county in which the proceedings are pending, the court shall designate some person authorized to administer oaths, by name or otherwise, to take and certify his testimony and the person so designated shall take his testimony in manner aforesaid and certify and return same to the court with his certificate attached thereto showing that he has complied with the requirements of said order.

(3) Proofs Prima Facie Evidence. The affidavit, return, certificate and other proofs of compliance with the provisions of this section (a), or certified copies thereof, shall be prima facie evidence of the facts therein stated.

(4) How and When Used. If a trial be had in which the petitioner named in the petition or any successor in interest of such petitioner or any person similarly situated shall be a party, or between any parties, in which trial it may be material to establish the facts which such testimony proves or tends to prove, upon proof of the death or insanity of the witness or witnesses, or of his or their inability to attend the trial by reason of age, sickness, infirmity, absence or for any other cause, any testimony, which shall have been taken as herein provided, or certified copies thereof, may be introduced and used by either party to such trial.

(b) After Judgment or After Appeal. If an appeal of a judgment is pending, or, if none is pending, then at any time within 35 days from the entry of such judgment, the court in which the judgment was rendered may allow the taking of the depositions of witnesses to perpetuate their testimony for use in the event of further proceedings in such court. In such case the party who desires to perpetuate the testimony may make a motion in such court for leave to take the depositions, upon the same notice and service thereof as if the action were pending in such court. The motion shall show: (1) The names and addresses of the persons to be examined and the substance of the testimony, so far as known, which he expects to elicit from each; (2) the reasons for perpetuating their testimony. If the court finds that the perpetuation of the testimony is proper to avoid a failure or delay of justice, it may make an order allowing the depositions to be taken, and thereupon the depositions may be taken and used in the same manner and under the same conditions as are prescribed in these rules for depositions taken in actions pending in trial courts.

28. Persons Before Whom Depositions May Be Taken

(a) Outside the State of Colorado. Depositions outside the State of Colorado shall be taken only upon proof that notice to take deposition has been given as provided in these rules. The deposition shall be taken before an officer authorized to administer oaths by the laws of this state, the United States or the place where the examination is to be held, or before a person appointed by the court in which the action is pending. A person so appointed has the power to administer oaths and take testimony.

(b) Disqualification for Interest. No deposition shall be taken before a person who is a relative or employee or attorney or counsel of any of the parties, or is financially interested in the action.

(c) Commission or Letters Rogatory. A commission or letters rogatory shall be issued when necessary, on application and notice, and on terms that are just and appropriate. It is not a requisite to the issuance of a commission or letters rogatory that the taking of the deposition in any other manner is impracticable or inconvenient. Both a commission and letters rogatory may be issued in proper cases. Officers may be designated in the commission either by name or descriptive title. Letters rogatory may be addressed "to the appropriate authority in (here name the appropriate place)." The clerk shall issue a commission or letters rogatory in the form prescribed by the jurisdiction where the deposition is to be taken, such form to be prepared by the party seeking the deposition. The commission or letters rogatory shall inform the officer that the original sealed deposition shall be filed according to subsection (d) of this rule. Any error in the form or in the commission or letters rogatory is waived unless an objection is filed and served before the time fixed in the notice.

(d) Filing of the Deposition. The officer transcribing the deposition shall file the original sealed deposition pursuant to C.R.C.P. 30(f)(1).

29. Stipulations Regarding Discovery Procedure

Unless otherwise directed by the court, the parties may by written stipulation: (1) provide that depositions may be taken before any person, at any time or place, upon any notice, and in any manner and when so taken may be used like other depositions; and (2) modify other procedures governing the timing of discovery, except that stipulations extending the time provided in C.R.C.P. Rules 33, 34, and 36 for responses to discovery may, if they would interfere with any time set for completion of discovery, for hearing of a motion, or for trial, be made only with the approval of the court.

30. Depositions Upon Oral Examination

(a) When Depositions May Be Taken.

(1) Subject to the provisions of C.R.C.P. Rules 26(b)(2)(A) and 26(d), a party may take the testimony of any person, including a party, by deposition upon oral examination without leave of court except as provided in paragraph (2) of this section. The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by subpoena as provided in C.R.C.P. 45.

(2) Leave of court must be obtained pursuant to C.R.C.P. Rules 16(b)(1) and 26(b) if:

(A) A proposed deposition, if taken, would result in more depositions than set forth in the Case Management Order;

(B) The person to be examined already has been deposed in the case;

(C) A party seeks to take a deposition before the time specified in C.R.C.P. 26(d) unless the notice contains a certification, with supporting facts, that the person to be examined is expected to leave the state and be unavailable for examination within the state if the person's deposition is not taken before the expiration of such time period; or

(D) The person to be examined is confined in prison.

(b) Notice of Examination: General Requirements; Method of Recording; Production of Documents and Things; Deposition of Organization; Deposition by Telephone.

(1) Consistent with C.R.C.P. 121, sec. 1–12, a party desiring to take the deposition of any person upon oral examination shall give reasonable notice in writing to every other party to the action. The notice shall state the time and place for taking the deposition and the name and address of each person to be examined, if known, and, if the name is not known, a general description sufficient to identify the person or the particular class or group to which the person belongs. If a subpoena duces tecum is to be served on the person to be examined, the designation of the materials to be produced as set forth in the subpoena shall be attached to or included in the notice.

(2) The party taking the deposition shall state in the notice the method by which the testimony shall be recorded, which, unless the court otherwise orders, may be by sound, sound–and–visual, or stenographic means. Unless the court otherwise orders, the party taking the deposition shall bear the cost of the recording.

(3) Any party may provide for a transcription to be made from the recording of a deposition taken by non–stenographic means. With reasonable prior notice to the deponent and other parties, any party may designate another method of recording the testimony of the deponent in addition to the method specified by the person taking the deposition. Unless the court otherwise orders, each party designating an additional method of recording the testimony of a deponent shall bear the cost thereof.

(4) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a deposition shall be conducted before an officer appointed or designated pursuant to C.R.C.P. 28 and shall begin with a statement on the record by the officer that includes (a) the officer's name and business address; (b) the date, time, and place of the deposition; (c) the name of the deponent; (d) the administration of the oath or affirmation to the deponent; and (e) an identification of all persons present. If the deposition is recorded other than stenographically, items (a) through (c) shall be repeated at the beginning of each unit of recorded tape or other recording medium. The appearance or demeanor of deponents or attorneys shall not be distorted by the use of camera or sound–recording techniques. At the conclusion of the deposition, the officer shall state on the record that the deposition is complete and shall set forth any stipulations made by counsel concerning the custody of the transcript or recording, the exhibits, or other pertinent matters.

(5) The notice to a party deponent may be accompanied by a request made in compliance with Rule 34 for the production of documents and tangible things at the taking of the deposition. The procedure of Rule 34 shall apply to the request.

(6) A party may in his notice name as the deponent a public or private corporation or a partnership or association or governmental agency and designate with reasonable particularity the matters on which examination is requested. The organization so named shall designate one or more officers, directors, or managing agents, or other persons who consent to testify on its behalf, and may set forth, for each person designated, the matters on which he will testify. The persons so designated shall testify as to matters known or reasonably available to the organization. This subsection (b)(6) does not preclude taking a deposition by any other procedure authorized in these rules.

(7) The parties may stipulate in writing or the court may upon motion order that a deposition be taken by telephone or other remote electronic means. For the purposes of this rule and C.R.C.P. Rules 28(a), 37(a)(1), and 37(b)(1), a deposition taken by telephone or other remote electronic means is taken at the place where the deponent is to answer questions propounded to the deponent. The stipulation or order shall include the manner of recording the proceeding.

(c) Examination and Cross–Examination; Record of Examination; Oath; Objections. Examination and cross–examination of witnesses may proceed as permitted at the trial under the provisions of the Colorado Rules of Evidence except CRE 103. The witness shall be put under oath or affirmation and the officer before whom the deposition is to be taken shall personally, or by someone acting under the officer's direction and in the officer's presence, record the testimony of the witness. The testimony shall be taken stenographically or recorded by any other method authorized by subsection (b)(2) of this Rule.

All objections made at the time of the examination to the qualifications of the officer taking the deposition, to the manner of taking it, to the evidence presented, to the conduct of any party, or in any other respect to the proceedings shall be noted by the officer upon the record of the deposition. Evidence objected to shall be taken subject to the objections. In lieu of participating in the oral examination, parties may serve written questions in a sealed envelope on the party taking the deposition and the party taking the deposition shall transmit them to the officer, who shall propound them to the witness and record the answers verbatim.

(d) Schedule and Duration; Motion to Terminate or Limit Examination.

(1) Any objection during a deposition shall be stated concisely and in a non–argumentative and non–suggestive manner. An instruction not to answer may be made during a deposition only when necessary to preserve a privilege, to enforce a limitation directed by the court, or to present a motion pursuant to subsection (d)(3) of this Rule.

(2) Unless otherwise authorized by the court or stipulated by the parties, a deposition is limited to one day of seven hours. By order, the court may limit the time permitted for the conduct of a deposition to less than seven hours, or may allow additional time if needed for a fair examination of the deponent and consistent with C.R.C.P. 26(b)(2), or if the deponent or another person impedes or delays the examination, or if other circumstances warrant. If the court finds such an impediment, delay, or other conduct that frustrates the fair examination of the deponent, it may impose upon the person responsible therefor an appropriate sanction, including the reasonable costs and attorney fees incurred by any parties as a result thereof.

(3) At any time during the taking of the deposition, on motion of any party or of the deponent and upon a showing that the examination is being conducted in bad faith or in such manner as unreasonably to annoy, embarrass, or oppress the deponent or party, the court in which the action is pending or the court in the district where the deposition is being taken may order the officer conducting the examination to cease forthwith from taking the deposition, or may limit the scope and manner of the taking of the deposition as provided in C.R.C.P. 26(c). If the order made terminates the examination, it may be resumed thereafter only upon the order of the court in which the action is pending. Upon demand of the objecting party or deponent, the taking of the deposition shall be suspended for the time necessary to make a motion for an order. The provisions of C.R.C.P. 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.

(e) Review by Witness; Changes; Signing. If requested by the deponent or a party before completion of the deposition, the deponent shall be notified by the officer that the transcript or recording is available. Within 35 days of receipt of such notification the deponent shall review the transcript or recording and, if the deponent makes changes in the form or substance of the deposition, shall sign a statement reciting such changes and the deponent's reasons for making them and send such statement to the officer. The officer shall indicate in the certificate prescribed by subsection (f)(1) of this rule whether any review was requested and, if so, shall append any changes made by the deponent.

(f) Certification and Filing by Officer; Exhibits; Copies; Notice of Filing.

(1) The officer shall certify that the witness was duly sworn and that the deposition is a true record of the testimony given by the witness. This certificate shall be set forth in writing and accompany the record of the deposition. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the officer shall securely seal the deposition in an envelope or package endorsed with the title of the action and marked "deposition of (here insert name of witness)" and shall promptly transmit it to the attorney who arranged for the transcript or recording. The receiving attorney shall store the deposition under conditions that will protect it against loss, destruction, tampering, or deterioration.

Documents and things produced for inspection during the examination of the witness shall, upon the request of a party, be marked for identification and annexed to and returned with the deposition and may be inspected and copied by any party, except that: if the person producing the materials desires to retain the originals, the person may

(A) offer copies to be marked for identification and annexed to the deposition and to serve thereafter as originals if the person affords to all parties fair opportunity to verify the copies by comparison with the originals, or

(B) offer the originals to be marked for identification, after giving each party an opportunity to inspect and copy them, in which event the materials may then be used in the same manner as if annexed to the deposition. Any party may move for an order that the original be annexed to and returned with the deposition to the court, pending final disposition of the case.

(2) Unless otherwise ordered by the court or agreed by the parties, the officer shall retain stenographic notes of any deposition taken stenographically or a copy of the recording of any deposition taken by another method. Upon payment of reasonable charges therefor, the officer shall furnish a copy of the transcript or other recording of the deposition to any party or to the deponent.

(g) Failure to Attend or to Serve Subpoena; Expenses.

(1) If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition fails to attend and proceed therewith and another party attends in person or by attorney pursuant to the notice, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the amount of the reasonable expenses incurred by him and his attorney in so attending, including reasonable attorney's fees.

(2) If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition of a witness fails to serve a subpoena upon him and the witness because of such failure does not attend, and if another party attends in person or by attorney because he expects the deposition of that witness to be taken, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the amount of the reasonable expenses incurred by him and his attorney in so attending, including reasonable attorney's fees.

31. Depositions Upon Written Questions

(a) Serving Questions; Notice.

(1) A party may take the testimony of any person, including a party, by deposition upon written questions without leave of court except as provided in paragraph (2) of this section. The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by the use of subpoena as provided in C.R.C.P. 45.

(2) Leave of court must be obtained pursuant to C.R.C.P. Rules 16(B)(1) and 26(B), if:

(A) A proposed deposition, if taken, would result in more depositions than set forth in the Case Management Order;

(B) The person to be examined already has been deposed in the case;

(C) A party seeks to take a deposition before the time specified in C.R.C.P. 26(d); or

(D) The person to be examined is confined in prison.

(3) A party desiring to take a deposition upon written questions shall serve them upon every other party with a notice stating: (1) the name and address of the person who is to answer them, if known, and if the name is not known, a general description sufficient to identify the person or the particular class or group to which the person belongs; and (2) the name or descriptive title and address of the officer before whom the deposition is to be taken. A deposition upon written questions may be taken of a public or private corporation, or a partnership, or association, or governmental agency in accordance with the provision of C.R.C.P. 30(b)(6).

(4) Within 21 days after the notice and written questions are served, a party may serve cross questions upon all other parties. Within 14 days after being served with cross questions, a party may serve redirect questions upon all other parties. Within 7 days after being served with redirect questions, a party may serve re–cross questions upon all other parties. The court may for cause shown enlarge or shorten the time.

(b) Officer to Take Responses and Prepare Record. A copy of the notice and copies of all questions served shall be delivered by the party taking the deposition to the officer designated in the notice, who shall proceed promptly, in the manner provided by Rule 30 (c), (e), and (f), to take the testimony of the witness in response to the questions and to prepare, certify, and file or mail the deposition, attaching thereto the copy of the notice and the questions received by him.

(c) Notice of Filing. When the deposition is filed the party taking it shall promptly give notice thereof to all other parties.

32. Use of Depositions in Court Proceedings

(a) Use of Depositions. At the trial or upon the hearing of a motion or an interlocutory proceeding, any part or all of a deposition, so far as admissible under the rules of evidence, may be used against any party who was present or represented at the taking of the deposition or who had reasonable notice thereof, in accordance with any of the following provisions:

(1) Any deposition may be used by any party for the purpose of contradicting or impeaching the testimony of deponent as a witness;

(2) The deposition of a party or of any one who at the time of taking the deposition was an officer, director, or managing agent of a public or private corporation, partnership, or association, or a governmental agency, which is a party, or a person designated under Rule 30(b)(6) or 31(a) to testify on behalf thereof may be used by an adverse party for any purpose.

(3) The deposition of a witness, whether or not a party, may be used by any party for any purpose if the court finds:

(A) That the witness is dead; or

(B) that the witness is at a greater distance than 100 miles from the place of trial or hearing, or is out of the United States, unless it appears that the absence of the witness was procured by the party offering the deposition; or

(C) that the witness is unable to attend or testify because of age, illness, infirmity, or imprisonment; or

(D) [None].

(E) that the party offering the deposition has been unable to procure the attendance of the witness by subpoena; or

(F) upon application and notice, that such exceptional circumstances exist as to make it desirable, in the interest of justice and with due regard to the importance of presenting the testimony of witnesses orally in open court, to allow the deposition to be used.

A deposition taken without leave of court pursuant to C.R.C.P. 30(a)(2)(C) shall not be used against a party who demonstrates that, when served with the notice, the party was unable through the exercise of diligence to obtain counsel to represent the party at the taking of the deposition.

(4) If only part of a deposition is offered in evidence by a party, an adverse party may require him to introduce any other part which ought in fairness to be considered with the part introduced, and any party may introduce any other parts.

Substitution of parties pursuant to Rule 25 does not affect the right to use depositions previously taken; and, when an action in any court of the United States or of any state has been dismissed and another action involving the same subject matter is afterward brought between the same parties or their representatives or successors in interest, all depositions lawfully taken and duly filed in the former action may be used in the latter as if originally taken therefor.

(5) In lieu of reading text from a deposition, parties are encouraged to use stipulated written summaries of deposition testimony at any hearing or trial, and to present the testimony at any hearing or trial in a logical order.

(b) Objections to Admissibility. Subject to the provisions of Rules 28(b) and subsection (d)(3) of this Rule, objection may be made at the trial or hearing to receiving in evidence any deposition or part thereof for any reason which would require the exclusion of the evidence if the witness were then present and testifying.

(c) Effect of Taking or Using Depositions. A party does not make a person his own witness for any purpose by taking his deposition. The introduction in evidence of the deposition or any part thereof for any purpose other than that of contradicting or impeaching the deponent makes the deponent the witness of the party introducing the deposition, but this shall not apply to the use by an adverse party of a deposition under subsection (a)(2) of this Rule. At the trial or hearing any party may rebut any relevant evidence contained in a deposition whether introduced by him or by any other party.

(d) Effect of Errors and Irregularities in Depositions.

(1) As to Notice. All errors and irregularities in the notice for taking a deposition are waived unless written objection is promptly served upon the party giving the notice.

(2) As to Disqualification of Officer. Objection to taking a deposition because of disqualification of the officer before whom it is to be taken is waived unless made before the taking of the deposition begins or as soon thereafter as the disqualification becomes known or could be discovered with reasonable diligence.

(3) As to Taking of Deposition.

(A) Objections to the competency of a witness or to the competency, relevancy, or materiality of testimony are not waived by failure to make them before or during the taking of the deposition, unless the ground of the objection is one which might have been obviated or removed if presented at that time.

(B) Errors and irregularities occurring at the oral examination in the manner of taking the deposition, in the form of the questions or answers, in the oath or affirmation, or in the conduct of parties and errors of any kind which might be obviated, removed, or cured if promptly presented, are waived unless seasonable objection thereto is made at the taking of the deposition.

(C) Objections to the form of written questions submitted under Rule 31 are waived unless served in writing upon the party propounding them within the time allowed for serving the succeeding cross or other questions and within 7 days after service of the last questions authorized.

(4) As to Completion and Return of Deposition. Errors and irregularities in the manner in which the testimony is transcribed or the deposition is prepared, signed, certified, sealed, endorsed, transmitted, filed, or otherwise dealt with by the officer under Rules 30 and 31 are waived unless a motion to suppress the deposition or some part thereof is made with reasonable promptness after such defect is, or with due diligence might have been ascertained.

33. Interrogatories to Parties

(a) Availability. Any party may serve upon any other party written interrogatories, not exceeding the number, including all discrete subparts, set forth in the Case Management Order, to be answered by the party served or, if the party served is a public or private corporation, or a partnership, or association, or governmental agency, by any officer or agent, who shall furnish such information as is available to the party. Leave of court must be obtained, consistent with the principles stated in C.R.C.P. Rules 16(b)(1) and 26(b) and subsection (e) of this Rule, to serve more interrogatories than the number set forth in the Case Management Order. Without leave of court or written stipulation, interrogatories may not be served before the time specified in C.R.C.P. 26(d).

(b) Answers and Objections.

(1) Each interrogatory shall be answered separately and fully in writing under oath, unless it is objected to, in which event the objecting party shall state the reasons for objection and shall answer to the extent the interrogatory is not objectionable.

(2) The answers are to be signed by the person making them, and the objections signed by the attorney making them.

(3) The party upon whom the interrogatories have been served shall serve a copy of the answers, and objections if any, within 35 days after the service of the interrogatories. A shorter or longer time may be directed by the court or, in the absence of such an order, agreed to in writing by the parties pursuant to C.R.C.P. 29.

(4) All grounds for an objection to an interrogatory shall be stated with specificity. Any ground not stated in a timely objection will be deemed to be waived unless the party's failure to object is excused by the court for good cause shown.

(5) The party submitting the interrogatories may move for an order pursuant to C.R.C.P. 37(a) with respect to any objection to or other failure to answer an interrogatory.

(c) Scope; Use at Trial. Interrogatories may relate to any matters which can be inquired into pursuant to C.R.C.P. 26(b), and the answers may be used to the extent permitted by the Colorado Rules of Evidence.

An interrogatory otherwise proper is not necessarily objectionable merely because an answer to the interrogatory involves an opinion or contention that relates to fact or the application of law to fact, but the court may order that such an interrogatory need not be answered until after designated discovery has been completed or until a pretrial conference or other later time.

(d) Option to Produce Business Records. Where the answer to an interrogatory may be derived or ascertained from the business records of the party upon whom the interrogatory has been served, or from an examination, audit, or inspection of such business records, or from a compilation, abstract, or summary based thereon, and the burden of deriving or ascertaining the answer is substantially the same for the party serving the interrogatory as for the party served, it is a sufficient answer to such interrogatory to specify the records from which the answer may be derived or ascertained and to afford to the party serving the interrogatory reasonable opportunity to examine, audit, or inspect such records and to make copies, compilations, abstracts, or summaries.

(e) Pattern and Non–Pattern Interrogatories; Limitations. The pattern interrogatories set forth in the Appendix to Chapter 4, Form 20, are approved. Any pattern interrogatory and its subparts shall be counted as one interrogatory. Any subpart to a non–pattern interrogatory shall be considered as a separate interrogatory.

34. Production of Documents and Things and Entry Upon Land for Inspection and Other Purposes

(a) Scope. Subject to the limitations contained in the Case Management Order, a party may serve on any other party a request:

(1) To produce and permit the party making the request, or someone acting on the party's behalf, to inspect and copy any designated documents (including writings, drawings, graphs, charts, photographs, phono–records, and other data compilations from which information can be obtained, translated, if necessary, by the respondent through detection devices into reasonably usable form), or to inspect and copy, test, or sample any tangible things which constitute or contain matters within the scope of C.R.C.P. 26(b) and which are in the possession, custody, or control of the party upon whom the request is served; or

(2) To permit entry upon designated land or other property in the possession or control of the party upon whom the request is served for the purpose of inspection and measuring, surveying, photographing, testing, or sampling the property or any designated object or operation thereon, within the scope of C.R.C.P. 26(b).

(b) Procedure. The request shall set forth the items to be inspected either by individual item or by category, and describe each item and category with reasonable particularity. The request shall specify a reasonable time, place, and manner of making the inspection and performing the related acts.

The party upon whom the request is served shall serve a written response within 35 days after the service of the request. A shorter or longer time may be directed by the court or agreed to in writing by the parties pursuant to C.R.C.P. 29. The response shall state, with respect to each item or category, that inspection and related activities will be permitted as requested, unless the request is objected to, in which event the reasons for objection shall be stated. If objection is made to part of an item or category, the part shall be specified. The party submitting the request may move for an order pursuant to C.R.C.P. 37(a) with respect to any objection to or other failure to respond to the request or any part thereof, or any failure to permit inspection as requested.

A party who produces documents for inspection shall produce them as they are kept in the usual course of business or shall organize and label them to correspond with the categories in the request.

(c) Persons Not Parties. This rule does not preclude an independent action against a person not a party for production of documents and things and permission to enter upon land.

35. Physical and Mental Examination of Persons

(a) Order for Examination. When the mental or physical condition (including the blood group) of a party, or of a person in the custody or under the legal control of a party, is in controversy, the court in which the action is pending may order the party to submit to a physical or mental examination by a suitably licensed or certified examiner or to produce for examination the person in his or her custody or legal control. The order may be made only on motion for good cause shown and upon notice to the person to be examined and to all parties and shall specify the time, place, manner, conditions, and scope of the examination and the person or persons by whom it is to be made.

(b) Report of Examiner.

(1) If requested by the party against whom an order is made under section (a) of this Rule or the person examined, the party causing the examination to be made shall deliver to said other party a copy of a detailed written report of the examiner setting out his or her findings, including results of all tests made, diagnoses, and conclusions, together with like reports of all earlier examinations of the same condition. After delivery the party causing the examination shall be entitled upon request to receive from the party against whom the order is made a like report of any examination, previously or thereafter made, of the same condition, unless, in the case of a report of examination of a person not a party, the party shows that he or she is unable to obtain it. The court on motion may make an order against a party requiring delivery of a report on such terms as are just, and if an examiner fails or refuses to make a report the court may exclude the examiner's testimony if offered at the trial.

(2) By requesting and obtaining a report of the examination so ordered or by taking the deposition of the examiner, the person examined waives any privilege he or she may have in that action or any other involving the same controversy, regarding the testimony of every other person who has examined or may thereafter examine the person in respect of the same mental or physical condition.

(3) This section (b) applies to examinations made by agreement of the parties, unless the agreement expressly provides otherwise. This section (b) does not preclude discovery of a report of an examiner in accordance with the provisions of any other Rule.

36. Requests for Admission

(a) Request for Admission. Subject to the limitations contained in the Case Management Order, a party may serve upon any other party a written request for the admission, for purposes of the pending action only, of the truth of any matters within the scope of C.R.C.P. 26(b) set forth in the request that relate to statements or opinions of fact or of the application of law to fact, including the genuineness of any documents described in the request. Copies of documents shall be served with the request unless they have been or are otherwise furnished or made available for inspection and copying. Leave of court must be obtained, consistent with the principles stated in C.R.C.P. Rules 16(b)(1) and 26(b), to serve more requests for admission than the number set forth in the Case Management Order. Without leave of court or written stipulation, requests for admission may not be served before the time specified in C.R.C.P. 26(d).

Each matter of which an admission is requested shall be separately set forth. The matter is admitted unless, within 35 days after service of the request, or within such shorter or longer time as the court may allow or as the parties may agree to in writing pursuant to C.R.C.P. 29, the party to whom the request is directed serves upon the party requesting the admission a written answer or objection addressed to the matter, signed by the party or by the party's attorney. If objection is made, the reasons therefor shall be stated. The answer shall specifically deny the matter or set forth in detail the reasons why the answering party cannot truthfully admit or deny the matter. A denial shall fairly meet the substance of the requested admission, and when good faith requires that a party qualify an answer or deny only a part of the matter of which an admission is requested, the party shall specify so much of it as is true and qualify or deny the remainder. An answering party may not give lack of information or knowledge as a reason for failure to admit or deny unless the party states that the party has made reasonable inquiry and that the information known or readily obtainable by the party is insufficient to enable the party to admit or deny. A party who considers that a matter of which an admission has been requested presents a genuine issue for trial may not, on that ground alone, object to the request; the party may, subject to the provisions of C.R.C.P. 37(c), deny the matter or set forth reasons why the party cannot admit or deny it.

The party who has requested the admissions may move to determine the sufficiency of the answer or objections. Unless the court determines that an objection is justified, it shall order that an answer be served. If the court determines that an answer does not comply with the requirements of this Rule, it may order either that the matter is admitted or that an amended answer be served. The court may, in lieu of these orders, determine that final disposition of the request be made at a pretrial conference or at a designated time prior to trial. The provisions of C.R.C.P. 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.

(b) Effect of Admission. Any matter admitted under this Rule is conclusively established unless the court on motion permits withdrawal or amendment of the admission. Subject to the provisions of Rule 16 governing amendment of a pretrial order, the court may permit withdrawal or amendment when the presentation of the merits of the action will be subserved thereby and the party who obtained the admission fails to satisfy the court that withdrawal or amendment will prejudice him in maintaining his action or defense on the merits. Any admission made by a party under this Rule is for the purpose of the pending action only and is not an admission by him for any other purpose nor may it be used against him in any other proceeding.

37. Failure to Make Disclosure or Cooperate in Discovery: Sanctions

(a) Motion for Order Compelling Disclosure or Discovery. A party, upon reasonable notice to other parties and all persons affected thereby, may apply for an order compelling disclosure or discovery as follows:

(1) Appropriate Court. An application for an order to a party or to a person who is not a party shall be made to the court in which the action is pending.

(2) Motion.

(A) If a party fails to make a disclosure required by C.R.C.P. 26(a), any other party may move to compel disclosure and for appropriate sanctions. The motion shall be accompanied by a certification that the movant in good faith has conferred or attempted to confer with the party not making the disclosure in an effort to secure the disclosure without court action.

(B) If a deponent fails to answer a question propounded or submitted pursuant to C.R.C.P. Rules 30 or 31, or a corporation or other entity fails to make a designation pursuant to C.R.C.P. Rules 30(b)(6) or 31(a), or a party fails to answer an interrogatory submitted pursuant to C.R.C.P. 33, or if a party, in response to a request for inspection submitted pursuant to C.R.C.P. 34, fails to respond that inspection will be permitted as requested or fails to permit inspection as requested, the discovering party may move for an order compelling an answer, or a designation, or an order compelling inspection in accordance with the request. The motion shall be accompanied by a certification that the moving party in good faith has conferred or attempted to confer with the person or party failing to make the discovery in an effort to secure the information or material without court action. When taking a deposition on oral examination, the proponent of the question may complete or adjourn the examination before applying for an order.

(3) Evasive or Incomplete Disclosure, Answer, or Response. For purposes of this subsection an evasive or incomplete disclosure, answer, or response shall be deemed a failure to disclose, answer, or respond.

(4) Expenses and Sanctions.

(A) If a motion is granted or if the disclosure or requested discovery is provided after the motion was filed, the court may, after affording an opportunity to be heard, require the party or deponent whose conduct necessitated the motion or the party or attorney advising such conduct or both of them to pay to the moving party the reasonable expenses incurred in making the motion, including attorney fees, unless the court finds that the motion was filed without the movant's first making a good faith effort to obtain the disclosure or discovery without court action, or that the opposing party's nondisclosure, response, or objection was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

(B) If a motion is denied, the court may make such protective order as it could have made on a motion filed pursuant to C.R.C.P. 26(c) and may, after affording an opportunity to be heard, require the moving party or the attorney filing the motion or both of them to pay to the party or deponent who opposed the motion the reasonable expenses incurred in opposing the motion, including attorney's fees, unless the court finds that the making of the motion was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

(C) If the motion is granted in part and denied in part, the court may make such protective order as it could have made on a motion filed pursuant to C.R.C.P. 26(c) and may, after affording an opportunity to be heard, apportion the reasonable expenses incurred in relation to the motion among the parties and persons in a just manner.

(b) Failure to Comply with Order.

(1) Non–Party Deponents – Sanctions by Court. If a deponent fails to be sworn or to answer a question after being directed to do so by the court in which the action is pending or from which the subpoena is issued, the failure may be considered a contempt of court.

(2) Party Deponents – Sanctions by Court. If a party or an officer, director, or managing agent of a party, or a person designated under Rule 30(b)(6) or 31(a) to testify on behalf of a party fails to obey an order to provide or permit discovery, including an order made under section (a) of this Rule or Rule 35, the court in which the action is pending may make such orders in regard to the failure as are just, and among others the following:

(A) An order that the matters regarding which the order was made or any other designated facts shall be taken to be established for the purposes of the action in accordance with the claim of the party obtaining the order;

(B) An order refusing to allow the disobedient party to support or oppose designated claims or defenses, or prohibiting him from introducing designated matters in evidence;

(C) An order striking out pleadings or parts thereof, or staying further proceedings until the order is obeyed, or dismissing the action or proceeding or any part thereof, or rendering a judgment by default against the disobedient party;

(D) In lieu of any of the foregoing orders or in addition thereto, an order treating as a contempt of court the failure to obey any orders except an order to submit to a physical or mental examination;

(E) Where a party has failed to comply with an order under Rule 35(a) requiring him to produce another for examination, such orders as are listed in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of this subsection (2), unless the party failing to comply shows that he is unable to produce such person for examination.

In lieu of any of the foregoing orders or in addition thereto, the court shall require the party failing to obey the order, or the attorney advising him, or both, to pay the reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees, caused by the failure, unless the court finds that the failure was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

(c) Failure to Disclose; False or Misleading Disclosure; Refusal to Admit.

(1) A party that without substantial justification fails to disclose information required by C.R.C.P. Rules 26(a) or 26(e) shall not, unless such failure is harmless, be permitted to present any evidence not so disclosed at trial or on a motion made pursuant to C.R.C.P. 56. In addition to or in lieu of this sanction, the court, on motion after affording an opportunity to be heard, may impose other appropriate sanctions, which, in addition to requiring payment of reasonable expenses including attorney fees caused by the failure, may include any of the actions authorized pursuant to subsections (b)(2)(A), (b)(2)(B), and (b)(2)(C) of this Rule.

(2) If a party fails to admit the genuineness of any document or the truth of any matter as requested pursuant to C.R.C.P. 36, and if the party requesting the admissions thereafter proves the genuineness of the document or the truth of the matter, the requesting party may apply to the court for an order requiring the other party to pay the reasonable expenses incurred in making that proof, including reasonable attorney fees. The court shall make the order unless it finds that

(A) the request was held objectionable pursuant to C.R.C.P. 36(a), or

(B) the admission sought was of no substantial importance, or

(C) the party failing to admit had reasonable ground to believe that the party might prevail on the matter, or

(D) there was other good reason for the failure to admit.

(d) Failure of Party to Attend at Own Deposition or Serve Answers to Interrogatories or Respond to Request for Inspection. If a party or an officer, director, or managing agent of a party or a person designated pursuant to C.R.C.P. Rules 30(b)(6) or 31(a) to testify on behalf of a party fails (1) to appear before the officer who is to take the deposition, after being served with a proper notice; or (2) to serve answers or objections to interrogatories submitted pursuant to C.R.C.P. 33, after proper service of the interrogatories; or (3) to serve a written response to a request for inspection submitted pursuant to C.R.C.P. 34, after proper service of the request, the court in which the action is pending on motion may make such orders in regard to the failure as are just, and among others it may take any action authorized by subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of subsection (b)(2) of this Rule. Any motion specifying a failure under clauses (2) or (3) of this subsection shall be accompanied by a certification that the movant in good faith has conferred or attempted to confer with the party failing to answer or respond in an effort to obtain such answer or response without court action. In lieu of any order or in addition thereto, the court shall require the party failing to act or the attorney advising that party or both to pay the reasonable expenses, including attorney fees, caused by the failure unless the court finds that the failure was substantially justified or that other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

The failure to act described in this subsection may not be excused on the ground that the discovery sought is objectionable unless the party failing to act has previously filed a motion for a protective order as provided by C.R.C.P. 26(c).

 

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